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舟曲泥石流纪实

8.18,我作为单位第三批舟曲泥石流救灾人员从南京抵达兰州,19日晚搭乘装满救灾物资的车辆启程,次日中午抵达舟曲县城。小小的县城,方圆不过两三平方公里地盘,住着四五万人。这泥石流偏偏从城中横扫而过,破坏颇深。

面对这样大规模的自然灾害,生命脆弱。可细细想想,这灾害的降临也有人的原因吧~

我对甘南一直心有向往,此行却给心中的期望打了不少折扣。灾后的舟曲,垃圾遍地,污水横流,沙尘漫天。我心中的甘南,是那个没有人间烟火的纯净甘南,此甘南,彼甘南,哪一个是真正的甘南。

—— 2010.8.26 于甘肃省甘南藏族自治州舟曲县县城

2010年8月7日晚11时左右,甘肃省甘南藏族自治州舟曲县城东北部山区突降特大暴雨,暴雨持续40多分钟,降雨量达97毫米。加之今年上半年,舟曲发生较长时间的持续干旱,使该地区的山体干缩,加大了岩石之间、山体之间的缝隙,使原本已经十分松散的岩体、山体更加松散。暴雨直接触发三眼峪、罗家峪等四条沟系特大山洪地质灾害,泥石流下泄,由北向南冲向县城,流经区域被夷为平地,泥石流堆积物阻断白龙江、形成堰塞湖。泥石流长约5千米,平均宽度300米,平均厚度5米,总体积180万立方米。截至8月24日,舟曲“8.8”特大山洪地质灾害中遇难人数为1447人,失踪318人。

舟曲县位于甘肃南部,甘南藏族自治州东南部,东邻武都县,北接宕昌县,西南与迭部县、文县和四川省九寨沟县接壤。全县总面积3010平方公里,辖20个乡、2个镇,210个行政村,总人口13.47万人,其中藏族4.4万人,占32.78%。境内年平均气温为12.7℃,全年无霜期平均为223天,年降雨量在400-800毫米,冬无严寒,夏无酷暑,素有”陇上桃花源”之称。舟曲县地处南秦岭山地,岷山山系呈东南—西北走向贯穿全境。地势西北高,东南低。白龙江谷地海拔较低,其高度在1200米左右,南北两则的山地高峰可达4000米以上。县境内山峦重叠,沟壑纵横,地形复杂,是典型的高山峡谷区。山高、谷深、石头多、坡陡、土薄、水流急,荒山荒坡水土流失、泥石流、滑坡严重是舟曲的自然现状。

Expert explains causes of Zhouqu mudslide

BEIJING, Aug. 11 (Xinhua) — The mountainous terrain and loss of ground cover made Zhouqu County, Gansu Province, which was hit by China’s deadliest mudslide in decades on Sunday, vulnerable to flooding and geological disasters, an expert said Wednesday.

“A lingering drought lasting almost 9 months in some local areas and the 2008 Sichuan earthquake that might have loosened the mountainside and caused some cracks are also reasons behind the devastating mudslide,” said Tao Qingfa, Deputy Director of the Department of Geological Environment of Ministry of Land and Resources.

He said mudslides are more devastating than floods because they move rapidly and grow in size, carrying with the current trees, houses and cars that stand in the way.

“They move so fast that there is hardly any time left for evacuation,” Tao said.

He also said that the country must adopt precautionary measures against such geological disasters, including regular inspections of mountains, evacuations of residents from mudslide-prone areas, building of walls and stronger structures.

Torrential rain on Saturday night prompted an avalanche of sludge and debris to crash down on the county seat of Zhouqu early Sunday morning, ripping many houses off their foundations and tearing multi-story apartment buildings in half.

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